Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things, the human body contains 37.2 trillion cells (on average) and around 200 different types of cells, each with a different job to do. Each cell has a number of parts with different functions with one very important part called the mitochondria. Think of mitochondria like batteries, they're the energy producing power plants within our cells which generate the majority of the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) that our cells use for energy to complete everyday tasks like walking, sprinting, working, talking, etc. In short, mitochondria are required in order for us to doanything. We want as many of them as possible, and we want them to be as healthy and efficient as possible.
PQQ is a cofactor similar in function to the family of B vitamins. It has been argued that PQQ should be added to the list of vitamins due to its structural similarity to both vitamin b2 and b3, and that most organisms are unable to synthesis PQQ and have to attain it from their diet. PQQ is located in the mitochondria of cells where it acts as a cofactor in various reactions. PQQ is similar to the NAD/NADH system whereby it can absorb electrons and release them again.
PQQ plays a role in creating the energy carrying ATP from ADP. It is thought to be involved in over 20,000 catalytic processes, compare this with vitamin c which is only involved in four processes, this makes pqq a significant discovery. Additionally, PQQ can influence gene expression in regions of certain genes relating to mitochondria and cellular cores of neurons. PQQ can not only increase the functional effectiveness of the mitochondria, but also the number of intracellular mitochondria within cells by inducing Mitochondrial biogenesis. More mitochondria means more ATP and more energy throughout the body and mind.
PQQ has a positive impact on NGF (Neuro growth factor) and can boost nerve growth by as much as 40 times. NGF is vital to the growth,repair and maintenance of neurons which transmit messages in the brain and to the rest of the body. An improvement in both the quality and quantity of neurons is associated with cognitive improvement.
The enhanced mitochondrial function as a result of PQQ can cause a significant reduction in mental stress, cognitive fatigue (brain fog) and improve the quality of sleep.